Thursday, January 30, 2020

Stone Cold Authors Craft Essay Example for Free

Stone Cold Authors Craft Essay Write an analytical response to the opening chapters of Robert Swindells Stone Cold, with specific reference to the authors craft. Every novel needs an effective opening. If it wasnt any good, we probably wouldnt read the novel! How do authors try and make the opening paragraphs of their books effective? Writers try to hook the reader into reading their book, by making a strong narrative pull; they try to make the reader want to know whats going to happen next? so that they read on. They do this with the aid of the authors craft. The authors craft is like a writers secret code of story telling. Its their nifty gizmo, and they call it their craft. Its basically their way of writing, and it is made up of two main parts; narrative elements and literary devices. Every author has a craft, but they all use it in different ways and in this essay I aim to show how Robert Swindells has used it, in the opening paragraphs of his book, Stone cold. Literary devices, as can be worked out from its name are the tools and techniques that authors use to make their work more meaningful and significant. Narrative Elements set out the story and its structure in different aspects, for instance its plot, characters and setting. Swindells has mastered the use of characterization in the opening paragraphs of his novel, and even in his first sentence, he characterizes his main character: You can call me Link. Links tone and wording makes him seem friendly -so the reader knows what sort of personality Link is of- and eager to talk to the reader directly, via the pronoun you. And by putting the words you and me in one sentence Swindells also makes the first sentence emotion as Link is connecting to the reader directly. The opening sentence in a way welcomes the readers into the book. It also seems a bit random, because we dont know at all whats going on. So this makes the reader eager to know why the character would want to be called by an alias, so would therefore read on to find out. In the same way, in the next paragraph another character is shown. The way he talks is very different to how the previous character did, so it is evidently clear he isnt the same person. By starting of with just Shelter and the often repetition of the word, it shows this character is quite full of himself. Unlike Link, this character doesnt at all use the word you, so is clearly not talking to the reader, but rather to himself. Swindells uses the technique of foreshadowing here. Here it is shown in advance that Shelter is a bit crazy, hence he is talking to himself. This is consequently proved later on in the novel, when the deeply disturbed Shelter, stores his murdered victims corpses under his floor boards, after making them presentable with clothing and haircuts. He seemed to care for the victims he despised in life, undoubtedly making him a lunatic. In the opening sentences Swindells uses a metaphor, to make the reader want to read on and question: Im invisible, see? One of the invisible people. Swindells does this to make the reader question as to why Link would say that, whats going on in his life to make him feel neglected? This makes the reader nosy and want to read on. Its also emotional, because Links manner of saying this kind of touch the heart. He says it as if no one cares about him, and he shows he is upset about it. Once again this makes the reader want to read on to find out why he feels like that, but the answer is revealed truly in the end of the book, when another character called Gail betrays him. Swindells does this so that the reader has to finish the book. In the last sentence of Links paragraph, Swindells expertly uses irony. Link says: Ill tell you the story of my fascinating life. It is obvious here that Link is being sarcastic as he seems depressed and hurt, and the reader does not expect Link to say this due to his negative attitude, even though to a normal person it probably would be fascinating. All this emphasizes on the fact that Link is the main character and the book is about his fascinating life. This makes the reader once again want to read on. As can be seen, most literary devices are aimed to make the novel more exiting to make the reader carry on reading. Throughout the second paragraph the technique of parallel structure is used. All the sentences are short and snappy: Its what theyre all seeking. The street people. What they crave. This creates a rhythm to what Shelter says and makes it confusing but satisfying; this makes the reader think about what is being said. The short sentences also grab the attention of the reader and make the reader think and wonder whether possibly the reason Link was sitting in the doorway was possibly because he was one of the street people, so may possibly be homeless. Furthermore the thing Link wanted from the passer-bys was money. In the same way the reader might jump to other conclusions, so carry on reading to find out if he was right and if not what else it could be. In the end of the second paragraph of the novel, Allusion is used. Well get fell in my lucky lads. Here Shelter is referring back to the army, when soldiers fall into line. This also gives a sense of foreshadowing because later on in the novel, the reader discovers that Shelter was actually from the army, and he creates a little a little army of his self with the homeless people or as he call them his lucky lads. From the opening chapters of Stone Cold, it is clear that even in a little extract of a novel authors use the authors craft quite a lot, and very complexly. The opening of this particular book is very effective and really does make the reader want to read on further in the book. People say that you cant judge a book by its cover and I agree with that. They should judge it by its opening paragraphs. If an author cant write the most important paragraph of a book properly, why would the rest of the novel be any different? Robert Swindells has written a successful novel here, and a lot of that goes onto the fact that he had a great opening paragraph.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The Difference Between Men and Women Essay -- Men Women Compare Contra

The Difference Between Men and Women When they say opposites attract, they aren’t kidding! The difference between fondness and loathing of girls and boys are exceptionally vivid and apparent. After watching â€Å"The Notebook† for the six hundredth time, with tears streaming down her face, a girl can finally declare it as being her favorite movie, and maybe even deem it as the best production ever created. The clichà © motives of the woman always seem to involve love and a knight in shining armor. Naturally, every woman dreams about Mr. Right, and falling head over heels in love. This is why females are so vulnerable to passionate films. â€Å"My heart melted when I saw him kiss her like that.† Stereotyped as the hopeless romantics, girls live to love and be loved. Girls want relationships. Girls enjoy corny love movies. This is somewhat of an escape route for the girls, knowing that in reality, the average guy isn’t interested in a relationship, or falling in love. But for the sake of women, in the hours of our mourning, why not take advantage of the blockbusters while their...

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Infant mortality Essay

Infant mortality simply refers to the number of death amongst the young ones per 1000 births. In this historical study, infant mortality rate between a range of time starting from 1750 to 1917 is studied. Its rate varies from one century to another with the 18th century recording the highest number of deaths among the young. Progressing towards the 20th century, there has been a drastic decline in the death rate of infants. Some medical professionals believe that this is because of the social health reform and medical improvement during the 19th and 20 centuries. On the other hand, some scholars, like Thomas McKeown, strongly suggest that this is mainly attributed to the improved nutrition and sanitation of the infant’s environment (McKeown, 121). Thomas McKeown is the scholar who spearheaded the well known McKeown Thesis. There has been an ongoing debate between the two ideas about which played the main significant role in checking the rampant death of the infants for several decades featured in countless student reading, so who actually saw the truth between the 19 and the 20th centuries? Infant mortality reduced over the centuries starting in the late 19th and early 20th century in the United States. The highest rate of death among the infants was observed in the first half of the 18th century (McKeown, 65) , this high rate of infant mortality was viewed as caused by societal break-down and poor policies rather that specific pathological organism. This was considered as a reflection of a poor frame work in the society. Between 1750 and 1800, the infant mortality rate was at the peak with many of the infants succumbing to their diseases. At the time, the technical aspects in undertaking comprehensive investigation to establish the actual cause of the diseases and finally finding the cure had not been successful. Many infants therefore died in large numbers. The community attributed all this to the broad and unfortunate societal problems. Many major countries had areas with indecent housing, flooded basements, contaminated water supplies and poverty, resulting in diseases such as typhoid, scarlet fever, tuberculosis and typhus to thrive (McVeigh). This in the end challenged them to actually think of ways to handle these problems. What they have come to conclude was that prenatal and postnatal diseases were ultimately influenced by external factors such as food deficiency, alcohol and tobacco use (Mudd, 117). While diseases and disabilities that are determined during conception or after birth are invariably different, both their origins can still be potentially controlled. In the second half of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, the government of the United States came up with efforts to curb this menace. They recommended the removal of infants in the cities; this was considered a major success since most mothers who were residing in the city end up having their young ones dying at a tender age. Some prenatal diseases, for example was due to exposure to harmful toxins in the environment, thereby affecting the child’s development in the mother’s womb (Mudd, 117-118). This was viewed that the city exposed the young to unhealthy environment hence exposing them to diseases. The congestion in the city was also found to facilitate the spread of contagious diseases among the young. Various forms of pollutants were rampant in the city and therefore the infant could easily contract infections. Many women at the turn of the 18th century were working in gas lit factories and sweatshops, which may affect their pregnancy (McVeigh). The mothers were advised to settle in their rural homes where these hazards were considered to have minimal consequences on the infants. It was fortunate that legislations were finally passed during 1848 to promote genuine concern for public health (McKeown, 66). Similarly, international city in Great Britain during the era, as well as an important location throughout Europe and the rest of the world in terms of international trade and human transit. Because of so many international produce, goods and people arriving in London daily, it became clear to medical professionals that foreign bodies can often be the bearers of disease; from London, such illnesses were doomed to spread throughout the rest of the country. In helping London’s citizens stay healthy, infant mortality rates were automatically dropped simultaneously. By exploring London’s newspaper archives, as well as other contemporary newspaper articles and even the correspondence of health care workers during the era, the information concerning infant mortality rates can be gathered and compared. In contrast, some scholars, such as Thomas McKeown, strongly suggest that this is mainly attributed to the improved nutrition and sanitation (Colgrove). The milk supply was improved among the young one, because the milk handling and supply of edible products was improved by the government. This government strategy has been significant in preserving the life of infants at the time. Child hygiene was another factor considered in checking the high rate of infant mortality. A child hygiene program was established by the government to ensure the infants were provided with the highest quality of hygiene . With the advancement on the technological innovations, infant mortality reduced in significant proportions over the centuries. The discovery of the various medical equipments and apparatus including the microscope and the stethoscope in the late 19th century boosted the medical field’s capabilities to handle these challenges (McVeigh). Simultaneous to this, great strides in the improvement of education of interns started happening in Europe. The scientist who specialized in medical microbiology studied deeper and discovered very many minute microbes which were found to cause high rate of infant mortality. These microbes were found to thrive on unhygienic conditions therefore causing high rate of infant mortality. They were found to be rampant especially in poorly handled milk and other foodstuff. With these discoveries of stethoscope and the microscope in the 20th century, many diseases were kept under control. This was because scientists had become knowledgeable about health matters. Before this tremendous discovery, many minute microorganisms causing several diseases amongst the young ones were at large and scientists were puzzled with unchecked high rate of infant mortality. The electron microscope with high magnification enabled these scientists to recognize the various disease causing organisms including viruses and bacteria. They managed to know the specific diseases that these microorganisms caused and the appropriate control measures needed to keep them at bay. They came up with antibiotics to cure infection in the infants. Antibiotics such as penicillin were also discovered in the early 20th century. At this time, due to these discoveries and appropriate measures taken by the government, the infant mortality drastically reduced. Medical attention to the infants was considered a priority and hence reducing the rate of infant’s death. Another important factor in curbing infant mortality is the development of obstetrics and the rise of gynecology in that time (McVeigh). It encompassed all aspects of pregnancy, and allowed sanitary and safe conditions for the mother and child. Arguably, poor sanitary conditions during childbirth are also one of the main causes of infant mortality in earlier centuries. McKeown’s views on public health sparked controversy during the 1970’s and 1980’s with its focus on allocation of medical resources. While the foundation of his empirical views might be considered flawed today, it spearheaded studies of where should public health practitioners should focus their efforts and the most important determinants of a society’s mortality (Colgrove). The thesis he authored was about the explanation of the dramatic population growth from around 1770 to the present (Szreter). It stated that it was because of the domino effect of improved economic conditions: better standards of living and enhanced nutritional status that strengthened infant resistance to most diseases. His works have been about the synthesis of these advanced ideas and later on his works began getting much attention because of its profound content (Szreter). It was curious to note that it attracted more audiences during its later years, even though it didn’t substantially contain any new information. It was probably the stronger awareness in public health that caused this. However, McKeown will always be considered a figure of importance because of his role in shaping contemporary systems to prevent infant mortality. Other factors that can be attributed to a precipitous decline in infant mortality rate starting from the late 19th and early 20th century include the improvement in economic growth, improvement in nutrition, new sanitary measures by the government and advances in knowledge about infant care in the united states of America (Colgrove). Though little is known about how each of this factors contributed in the reduction in the infant mortality rate, a systematic review of the data from the specific period stressed that providing clean milk in market was the main contributor to this decline in the infant mortality . However, the writer of this journal was biased in the sense that handling milk supply and milk hygiene was not the only cause of infant mortality. It‘s important to note that the both technological advancement and improved nutrition played a very crucial role in checking the infant mortality rate starting from the late 18th to early 20th century. The perception that the high rate of infant mortality was due to societal problems and poor policies could not help in reversing the trend in the first half of the 18th century. Technological advancement saw the discovery of the various medical apparatus and equipments in the 20th century which helped in the reduction of high infant mortality rate. The scientists discovered the actual causes of these deaths being pathological organism which could be controlled. The economic growth and education enabled this scientist to conduct further research and hence control measures were devised which came up with cure for various diseases affecting the infants.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Persuasive Essay On Beauty - 1658 Words

Beauty is a concept many find difficult to define, yet many would be able to offer a solution to make themselves more beautiful. If we do not know what beauty is, then how are we able to improve it? Plastic surgery has been gaining popularity and cultural support for decades now, even though there is substantial evidence to suggest that such procedures are dangerous and can lead to early death. For some, this risk is justified due to their unquenchable desire to become more beautiful. Pressure is too immense on the average American woman to remain beautiful as they age, and as a result, they feel compelled to turn to unorthodox solutions. Regardless of the outcomes of the surgeries, even if some would consider it a success, I assert that†¦show more content†¦Turning to makeup to help define themselves, girls soon realize that they are nobody without this false face of theirs, and then turn to therapists later in life. A young woman, in attempting to emulate happy people, hol ds herself to unrealistic standards. As many have noted, many popular forms of media depict the ‘good guys’ as attractive, and the villains as either unattractive or even downright hideous. First used as a way to identify basic character personalities in movies, it has now become a rule of sorts. This cliche has pigeonholed people who see themselves as ugly to see themselves also as bad people in general, and this affects their actions (TV Tropes Staff). As the comic to the left shows, titled â€Å"Lyn plays ‘Spot the Good Guy’†, the protagonists are easily distinguished from their evil counterparts. Another pop culture reference was actually aired on Cartoon Network in a show called â€Å"Adventure Time†, where one of the characters satirically informs his friend that, â€Å"if she were good, she wouldn’t be so ugly.† (Ward). This further reinforces the idea that beautiful characters are made to be the heros, and that even shows are aware of this to the point where comedy is derived from it. Pop culture depicts the heros as valiant and brave and handsome, while the villains are purposefully depicted as distorted or unattractive. One girl who sees a villain with buck teeth might assume that all people with buck teeth are bad, and thenShow MoreRelatedPersuasive Essay On Beauty982 Words   |  4 Pages Beauty is a matter of opinion because it is formed at a young age primarily influenced by the media, your environment, and social interactions. There are countless amounts of beauty standards around the world, in Japan the latest beauty trend could be bleaching your skin, but in India it may possibly be glittery eyeshadow. Good looks are thriving globally and are attempted by most. Why do we thrive for such attractiveness when beauty is not only skin deep? 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